The easiest way to make a singular noun plural is to add “s.”
Exception #1: Add “es” to a noun ending in “s,” “x,” “z,” “ch,” or “sh.”
Exception #2: Add “ies” to a noun ending in a consonant plus “y.”
Exception #3: Some plural nouns are irregular, and unfortunately you just have to memorize them. Here are some examples:
Exception #4: Some nouns sound plural, but they are actually singular.
Mathematics is my favorite subject.
The local news is covering the story tonight.
Exception #5: Some plural nouns seem like singular items, but they actually take a plural verb.
My jeans are frayed and dirty.
My glasses are foggy.