There is no one set citation style in the sciences. Each journal may have a slightly different method of citing sources. Please consult with your professor on what exact style to follow. I am happy to help look over your paper and help with citing your sources.
GSA Style is the citation standard created by the Geological Society of America and is commonly used in the field of geology.
In-text citations: Every time you present information that you have obtained from another source, you must create an in-text citation for it. GSA Style does not use footnotes. Avoid using direct quotes and instead, summarize in your own words the ideas or facts that come from a source. Summaries need to include in-text citations.
References Cited: At the end of your literature review, you should have a reference list that will include all the sources that were cited in your paper.
The content of citations will vary depending on the source, but the following rules apply to all citations:
The first line of each citation should be aligned with the left margin. The second and subsequent lines of each citation should be indented by 0.5 inches to create a hanging indent.
When you present information that comes from another source, you should create an in-text citation that includes both the author's last name and the four digit year of publication. You can do this in one of two ways:
Author(s), Year of publication, Title, Source, volume (if applicable), Pages.
Sears, J.W., 2012, Making Nuna and breaking Rodinia: Implications of Siberia-Laurentia connections for supercontinent cycles:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 44, no. 7, p. 378.
Author(s), Year of Publication, Title: Subtitle (if applicable): Publication, Volume number, Page numbers, doi (if applicable).
Coogan, L.A., and Hinton, R.W., 2006, Do the trace element compositions of detrital zircons require Hadean continental crust?:
Geology, v. 34, p. 633–636, doi:10.1130/G22737.1.
Author(s), Year of Publication, Title: Place of publication, Publisher, Number of pages.
Allmendinger, R.W., Cardozo, N., and Fisher, D., 2011, Structural Geology Algorithms: Vectors and Tensors in Structural Geology:
New York, Cambridge University Press, 304 p.
Author(s), Year of Publication, Title of chapter, in Author(s)/editor(s) of full volume, Title, Place of publication (if available), Publisher (if available), Volume (if available), Pages.
Sawyer, D.S., Buffler, R.T., and Pilger, R.H., 1991, The crust under the Gulf of Mexico basin, in Salvador, A., ed.,
The Gulf of Mexico Basin: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, Geology of North America, v. J, p. 53–72.
Author(s), Year of publication, Title: Publisher, Volume (if applicable), Pages.
Hay, R.L., 1963, Stratigraphy and zeolitic diagenesis of the John Day Formation of Oregon: University of California Publications in
Geological Sciences, v. 42, p. 199–262.
Author(s), Year of publication, Title: Publisher, Series number (if available), Scale (if available), Number of sheets (if available), Number of text pages (if applicable).
Ernst, W.G., 1993, Geology of the Pacheco Pass quadrangle, central California Coast Ranges: Geological Society of America
Map and Chart Series MCH078, scale 1:24 000, 1 sheet, 12 p. text.
Author(s), Year, Title, in Title of proceedings, Month and year of conference (include this only if year of conference differs from publication year): Place of publication: Publisher, Pages
Baar, C., 1972, Creep measured in deep potash mines vs. theoretical predictions, in Proceedings, Canadian Rock Mechanics
Symposium, 7th, Edmonton: Ottawa, Canada Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, p. 23–77.
Author, Year of publication, Title of webpage: URL (Month and year that site was accessed).
Scotese, C.R., 2003, PALEOMAP Project: http://www.scotese.com (accessed August 2019).