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Research Guides

Eastern Washington University Libraries

AAST 220/315: Post-Civil War African American History/African History

For Dr. Scott Finnie

Why Use APA?

  • Unified style of documentation, tone, formatting, etc. allows readers to focus on ideas rather than unfamiliar formatting.
  • Clear communication allows you to join an academic conversation--you want to speak the same language as everyone else to avoid confusion.
  • Documentation of sources gives credit where credit is due, establishes your credibility and your place in the conversation, and enables readers to go to the sources you used for further reading.
  • APA style is used primarily in the social and behavioral sciences fields.

APA Style (7th edition)

The American Psychological Association, or APA, maintains a style sheet called APA Style. APA Style provides guidelines for formatting documents and citing sources in text and in a references list. APA Style is typically used in the social sciences and education, nursing, and social work programs.

Notable changes in the 7th edition

Citation and style guidelines listed by topic

Reference list examples

In-text citations of paraphrases

In-text citations of quotations

Steps to Citing

  1. Keep track of publication info as you read.
  2. Determine specifically what types of sources you have. Online or print articles? From a library database? Books with one author or more, or none? etc.
  3. Look up the format for those types of sources in your manual or web resource, using table of contents, index, or search tools.
  4. Follow the instructions precisely, paying close attention to punctuation and italicization. 

In-Text Citation

Check out one of the resources on the left for more information on citing your sources. Click here to see a sample essay.

Introducing the author within your text:

In his article, "Individualism and technology,Khan (2001) notes differences between Western popular culture and collectivistic cultures, specifically the Kenyan culture.


Signal Phrases. A signal phrase helps to introduce the source and visually cues your reader that you are about to introduce somebody else’s ideas.

According to Hayes (2014), “videogames may be educational” (p. 23).
The signal phrase “according to Hayes” lets the reader know where your ideas stop and your source’s ideas begin.
Note: APA style requires authors to use past tense when using signal phrases.

Including source info parenthetically only:

The second reason is that a shared cultural knowledge about writing exists – a knowledge that the American students and teacher bring to the American composition classroom (Ramanathan & Kaplan, 1996).

Authors and signal phrases:

In the sentence                                                         In parentheses

 One:       Lunsford stated                             (Lunsford, 2013).

 Two:       Lunsford and Brody stated            (Lunsford & Brody, 2013).

 Three+:       Lunsford et al. stated                  (Lunsford et al., 2013).

Citing a quote or paraphrase:

In fact, Leki (1992) claimed, “ESL students often remark on the apparent lack of respect for teachers here” (p. 48).

Three or more authors:

(Smith et al., 2007, p. 170)

Organization as a source:

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)

Second citation: (MADD, 2000)

​Here are some other common verbs that can be used in signal phrases: claimed, argued, asserted, agreed, believed, has found, identified, discussed, concluded, observed, suggested, reported, emphasized.

Reference List

The list of sources at the end of your paper should be titled "References."

Click here for a great sample essay that includes a reference list.

Check out the Purdue OWL or the manuals listed on the left to find out how to cite any kind of source.

Basic components of a reference: 
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume

      number(issue number), pages.

Here is an example reference page that demonstrates the appropriate layout and rules for creating a source list.